Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830)

by Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830)

Oil on canvas. 35 3/8 x 28 3/8 in. (90 x 72 cm). Gypsotheca e Museo Antonio Canova, Possagno, Italy.

by Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830)

Oil on panel; 60 1/2 x 47 1/2 inches (153.7 x 120.7 cm). Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT.

by Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830)

Oil on canvas; 107 x 69 1/2 in. (271.8 x 176.6 cm). Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT.

by Thomas Lawrence (1769—1830)

Pastel on gouache paper. Historical Society of Pennsylvania Collection, Philadelphia History Museum at the Atwater Kent, Philadelphia, PA.

The failure of the Loyalists to flock to the royal standard cannot be understood without appreciating how effectively they had been locked down and neutralized by the patriots. Loyalists could not buy, sell, or bequeath property or other assets. They were barred from all legal recourse to recover debts or redress any other injury. They could not practice law or teach unless they had taken an oath of allegiance to the cause. They could not be executors of estates or be a guardian to a child. Any person who wrote, or spoke, or by any act libeled or defamed Congress ... should be brought to trial.

Michael Stephenson
Patriot Battles: How the War of Independence Was Fought (2007)