Unknown Artist

by Unknown Artist

Paper mâché tray. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI.

by Unknown Artist

Two-sided locket, ivory; 2 1/2 in. ( 6.4 cm ). New-York Historical Society, New York, NY.

by Unknown Artist

 

by Unknown Artist

Mezzotint; 356 mm x 238 mm.; published in London by John Morris. British Museum, London, England.

by Unknown Artist

The only known portrait of Steuben without a military uniform, at about age 40.

by Unknown Artist

Oil on canvas, lined to fiberglass; 38 x 72 1/2 in. (96.5 x 184.2 cm). New-York Historical Society, New York, NY.

By attacking slavery more fiercely than ever before, Revolutionary Americans freed tens of thousands of slaves. But the Revolution’s libertarian and egalitarian message had perverse consequences. It forced those Southerners who chose to retain slavery to fall back on the alleged racial deficiencies of blacks as a justification for an institution that hitherto they had taken for granted and had never before needed to justify. The anti-slavery movement that arose out of the Revolution inadvertently produced racism in America.

Gordon S. Wood
Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)