Racial prejudice worked to perpetuate American slavery, even if it was not essential to sustain the institution. Slavery, serfdom, and peonage had existed elsewhere without racial connotations. Indeed, bondage had been so historically ubiquitous one might well ask why, by the 1760’s, it had come to trouble so many white Americans so much. The answer lies in part — and this part help explain why people like Mason did not act more aggressively on their concerns — in the reservations many whites felt about living alongside members of a supposedly inferior race, whether slave or free. The problem was inherent in American slavery, and emancipation, by undermining white control, would only make it worse.
|Daniel Boone Homestead
|Site where Daniel Boone was born; includes visitor center and exhibits in seven original and six reconstructed structures on 579 acres of land.
|Brandywine Battlefield Park
|Site of the 1777 battle, which was the largest of the war; includes visitor center with museum; also includes the houses that provided separate headquarters for Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette.
|Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site
|Operating from 1771 - 1883, Hopewell Furnace supplied shot, shells, and cannon to the Continental Army; includes 14 restored buildings with hiking trails on 848 acres.
|Fort Washington State Park
|Site of the temporary fort and encampment for the Continental Army in late 1777; offers picnicking, fishing, biking, and 3.5 miles of trails.
|Hope Lodge Historic Site
|This Georgian-style mansion was completed by 1748. During the war it was used by the Continental Army’s Surgeon General in late 1777; includes formal garden and grounds.
|Waynesborough Historic House
|Home to the Wayne family from 1724 to 1965, including General Anthony Wayne who led troops in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and Stony Point.
|American Philosophical Society — Library & Museum
|Founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram to promote “Useful Knowledge.” Philosophical Hall (1789) is now a museum featuring art, scientific instruments, rare books, original manuscripts, natural history specimens, and curiosities.
|Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
|A 20-foot marble statue of Franklin greets visitors in the rotunda of The Franklin Institute Science Museum; personal possessions and inventions are on display in Memorial Hall.
|Betsy Ross House
|The original structure was built about 1740, Betsy and her husband John Ross rented the house 1773 - 86; includes period furniture, exhibits on the American flag, and, near the garden, the graves of husband and wife.
|Bishop White House
|Built in 1787 for Rev. Dr. William White, an Epischopal Bishop and rector of Christ Church and St. Peter's Church. Guided tours are available during limited hours.
|Completed in 1770, this Georgian building was the meeting place of the First Continental Congress in 1774.
|Founded in 1695, this was the first Anglican Church in Philadelphia; the current wonderfully-preserved structure was built 1727 - 44. Washington, Franklin, Adams, and many other Revolutionary War leaders worshipped here, and many are buried in the nearby Burial Ground.
|Originally completed 1789 as the Philadelphia County Court House, it was the meeting place of Congress, 1790 - 1800; access is available through a Park Ranger tour.
|A reconstruction of the house in which Thomas Jefferson rented rooms and where, in June 1776, he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
|Originally called Fort Island Battery, it was built by the British in 1771 on the Delaware River; in 1777 colonials held the Fort for five weeks against a British siege. Includes 14 restored buildings, weapons demonstrations, and cannon firings.
|Includes Market Street Houses, Franklin’s house — completed in 1765 and razed in 1812 and now only a suggestive steel-frame outline — and an underground museum devoted to Franklin’s life and inventions.
|Gloria Dei (Old Swedes’) Church
|Completed in 1700, this is Pennsylvania’s oldest church; includes historic artifacts and churchyard with graves of several significant patriots.
|Site of the Second Continental Congresss and of the signing of the Declaration of Independence; access is available through a Park Ranger tour.
|Liberty Bell Center
|Already cracked when it was imported from England, the bell was recast in 1753 but later cracked again; it was probably rung on the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.
|Museum of the American Revolution
|This is the only the museum dedicated to the American Revolution.
|National Constitution Center
|Opened in 2003, the nonprofit Center “illuminates constitutional ideals and inspires acts of citizenship” by providing a theatrical overview, multimedia history, interactive exhibits, and life-size statues of the signers of the Constitution.
|Old City Hall
|Completed in 1791 for use by the city, the U.S. Supreme Court shared its space with the mayor until 1800; access is available through park ranger tour.
|Old Pine Street Presbyterian Church
|Completely redesigned since its founding in 1768, but with the original walls intact, this is remembered as the “Church of the Patriots.” It is the only remaining Colonial Presbyterian church and churchyard in America.
|Old St. Mary’s Church
|Built in 1763, this was the second Roman Catholic church in Philadelphia. With a modest structure and a cemetery in the rear, it was nonetheless the site of significant contributions to the revolution and the colonial life of Philadelphia.
|Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
|Founded by Charles Willson Peale, William Rush, and others in 1805, this is the oldest art museum/school in the U.S. Includes works by Charles Willson Peale, William Rush, Benjamin West, Rembrandt Peale, Gilbert Stuart, and Thomas Sully.
|Built in 1786 for Henry Hill, a wealthy Madeira wine importer, this four-story house is the only remaining free-standing Federal style home in Philadelphia proper. Available for guided tours.
|Pine Building, Pennsylvania Hospital (Penn Medicine)
|Founded in 1751 by Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond, it was the first hospital in North America; offers welcome center and self-guided walking tour.
|Samuel Powel was the last royal mayor of Philadelphia and the first mayor of the city after the newly established U.S. in 1789. The house includes paintings, period furniture, as well as a formal garden.
|Second Bank of the United States
|Completed in 1824, it is used today as a portrait gallery for 185 paintings of colonial and federal leaders, many by Charles Willson Peale.
|St. Peter’s Church
|Completed in 1761, this Episcopal church is relatively unchanged, with a wonderfully ornate organ, original box-pews, and an historic cemetery that includes the grave of painter Charles Willson Peale.
|Built between 1763 - 67, Cliveden is considered to be one of the finest colonial homes in the U.S. It sheltered the British during the Battle of Germantown in 1777 and still shows the scars of cannon fire.
|Completed in 1772, British General Sir William Howe occupied the house after the Battle of Germantown in 1777; President Washington resided there in 1793 and 1794; includes period pieces and interactive exhibits.
|Erected 1723 - 30 by James Logan, secretary to William Penn, Stenton is a finely preserved Georgian home. Used by both Generals Howe and Washington at different times, it includes gardens an an elegant but simple interior.
|This federal-style mansion, built about 1740 and enlarged in 1798, served as headquarters for the Continental Army during the Battle of Germantown in 1777; includes period furniture and artifacts on 3.5 acres.
|Valley Forge National Historical Park
|Site of the six-month Continental Army encampment, 1776 - 77, during which soldiers starved and froze and died; includes visitor center, living history, and 3,500 acres for biking and hiking.
|Washington’s headquarters in August 1777. The stone house has ongoing construction but can be visited.
|Washington Crossing Historic Park
|Commemorates and preserves the site where Washington crossed the Delaware River with his troops and surprised and defeated the Hessions in Trenton (1776); includes visitor center.
|Peter Wentz Farmstead
|This restored Germanic-Georgian farmhouse, dating from 1758, was Washington’s headquarters for the Battle of Germantown; includes a garden and farm animals on 97 acres.
George Mason: Forgotten Founder (2006)