In 1789 the South and especially Virginia had been the impelling force in creating the nation. By 1815 the South and slaveholders still seemed to be in control of the national government. President Madison was a slaveholder. So too were Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, James Monroe, the secretary of state, and George W. Campbell, the secretary of the treasury. All Republican leaders of the House were slaveholders. In 1815 the United States had four missions in Europe: two of them were held by slaveholders. The chief justice of the United States was a slaveholder, as were a majority of the other members of the Court. Since 1789 three of the four presidents, two of the five vice-presidents, fourteen of the twenty-six presidents pro tempore the Senate, and five of the ten Speakers of the House had been slaveholders.
Knyphausen, Wilhelm von
PA — 11 September 1777.
New York, NY — 16 November 1776.
PA — 4 October 1777.
NJ — 28 June 1778.
NY — 28 October 1776.
Manalapan, NJ — Marks the site of the 1778 Battle of Monmouth; includes hiking and horseback riding trails and two houses from the period.
New York, NY — Manhattan's oldest existing house was built in 1756 as a summer retreat for loyalist British Lieutenant Colonel Roger Morris and his wifeIt served briefly as Washington's headquarters in 1776; includes 12 restored period rooms.
Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)