By attacking slavery more fiercely than ever before, Revolutionary Americans freed tens of thousands of slaves. But the Revolution’s libertarian and egalitarian message had perverse consequences. It forced those Southerners who chose to retain slavery to fall back on the alleged racial deficiencies of blacks as a justification for an institution that hitherto they had taken for granted and had never before needed to justify. The anti-slavery movement that arose out of the Revolution inadvertently produced racism in America.
PA — 11 September 1777.
SC — 8 September 1781.
New York, NY — 16 November 1776.
PA — 4 October 1777.
Greensboro, NC — 15 March 1781.
New York, NY — 16 September 1776.
NY — 27 August 1776.
NJ — 28 June 1778.
NJ — 26 December 1776 (Second Battle of Trenton, 2 January 1777).
Portsmouth, RI — The earthwork redoubt is still discernible, it was a key position during the Battle of Rhode Island (1778), and provides a panoramic view of Mt. Hope Bay.
Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)