By attacking slavery more fiercely than ever before, Revolutionary Americans freed tens of thousands of slaves. But the Revolution’s libertarian and egalitarian message had perverse consequences. It forced those Southerners who chose to retain slavery to fall back on the alleged racial deficiencies of blacks as a justification for an institution that hitherto they had taken for granted and had never before needed to justify. The anti-slavery movement that arose out of the Revolution inadvertently produced racism in America.
PA — 11 September 1777.
PA — 4 October 1777.
NJ — 28 June 1778.
NY — 15 July 1779.
Manalapan, NJ — Marks the site of the 1778 Battle of Monmouth; includes hiking and horseback riding trails and two houses from the period.
Stony Point, NY — Site of the victorious 1779 battle led by American General Anthony Wayne, the 87 acres includes an earthen fort and a visitors center with a museum.
Paoli, PA — Home to the Wayne family from 1724 to 1965, including General Anthony Wayne who led troops in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and Stony Point.
Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)