Virtually all modern accounts of the Revolution begin in 1763 with the Peace of Paris, the great treaty that concluded the Seven Years’ War. Opening the story there, however, makes the imperial events and conflicts that followed the war — the controversy over the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act crisis — into precursors of the Revolution. No matter how strenuous their other disagreements, most modern historians have looked at the years after 1763 not as contemporary Americans and Britons saw them — as a postwar era vexed by the unanticipated problems in relations between the colonies and metropolis — but as what we in retrospect know those years to have been, a pre-Revolutionary period. By sneaking glances, in effect, at what was coming next, historians robbed their accounts of contingency and suggested, less by design than by inadvertence, that the independence and nationhood of the United States were somehow inevitable.
Continental Army general — one of Washington’s best; 1726—1783.
Talented Continental Army general who defected to the British; 1741—1801.
British playwright, politician; general who lost the Battles of Saratoga; 1722—92.
Governor of Quebec; British commander-in-chief, 1782 - 83; 1724—1808.
French general, liaison between Rochambeau and Washington; 1734—88.
Soldier, politician, New York governor, vice president under Jefferson and Madison; 1739—1812.
British general; commander-in-chief, 1778—82; 1730—95.
British general, surrendered with troops at Yorktown; 1738—1805.
German general; died at the Battle of Fort Mercer.
British general, Royal Governor of Massachusetts, ordered troops to Concord; 1719/20—87.
Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754 - 1766 (2000)