Thomas Paine

by John Trumbull (1756—1843)

Oil on wood; 10.2 x 8.9 (4 x 3 1/2 in). Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Monticello, Charlottesville, VA.

by Auguste Millière (active 1876—96)

Oil on canvas; 16 x 12 inches (406 x 305 mm). After an

by Laurent Dabos (1762—1835)

Oil on canvas. National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian), Washington, DC.

by William Sharp (1749—1824)

Engraving. Based on the portrait by British artist George Romney (1734—1802).

Thomas Paine at age 55.

by Laurent Dabos (1762—1835)

Thomas Paine, c. 1792

by John Welsey Jarvis (c.1780—1840)

Age 72.

by John Welsey Jarvis (c.1780—1840)

Age 70.

The issue of taxation had immense symbolic importance on both sides of the Atlantic. Like most of his fellow members of Parliament, [Lord Frederick] North regarded the right of Britain to tax America as integral to the absolute and indivisible supremacy of Parliament over America. The concept of parliamentary sovereignty was more than an abstract doctrine. It had emotional resonance as a constitutional victory won against the monarchy in the Glorious Revolution, following the deposition of James II in 1688. It was regarded as essential for the protection of liberty in general. For Britain, the right to tax the colonies was fundamental to its authority to govern America. At the same time, taxation united colonial opposition more than any other grievance.

Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy
The Men Who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire (2013)