Thomas Paine

by John Trumbull (1756—1843)

Oil on wood; 10.2 x 8.9 (4 x 3 1/2 in). Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Monticello, Charlottesville, VA.

by Auguste Millière (active 1876—96)

Oil on canvas; 16 x 12 inches (406 x 305 mm). After an

by Laurent Dabos (1762—1835)

Oil on canvas. National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian), Washington, DC.

by Laurent Dabos (1762—1835)

Thomas Paine, c. 1792

by William Sharp (1749—1824)

Engraving. Based on the portrait by British artist George Romney (1734—1802).

Thomas Paine at age 55.

by John Welsey Jarvis (c.1780—1840)

Age 72.

by John Welsey Jarvis (c.1780—1840)

Age 70.

The Americans ... revolted not to create but to maintain their freedom. American society had developed differently from that of the Old World. From the time of the first settlements in the seventeenth century, wrote Samuel Williams in 1794, every thing tended to produce, and to establish the spirit of freedom. While the speculative philosophers of Europe were laboriously searching their minds in an effort to decide the first principles of liberty, the Americans had come to experience vividly that liberty in their everyday lives.

Gordon S. Wood
The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States (2011)