John Quincy Adams

by John Singleton Copley (1738—1815)

Oil on canvas; 76.52 x 63.5 cm (30 1/8 x 25 in). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA.

by Gilbert Stuart (1755—1828)

Oil on panel; 68 × 55.9 cm (26.77 × 22.01 in) The White House Collection, Washington, DC.

by Gilbert Stuart (1755—1828)

Oil on canvas; 76.4 × 63.5 cm (30.08 × 25 in). The White House Collection, Washington, DC.

by Thomas Sully (1783—1872)

Watercolor, black chalk, and graphite on off-white laid paper; 10 3/8 x 6 1/2 in.

by Gilbert Stuart (1755—1828)

Oil on canvas; 241.3 x 151.8 cm (95 x 59 3/4 in). Harvard University Portrait Collection, Cambridge, MA.

Copy of photo by Philip Haas

According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art web site, this image is a copy of a lost daguerreotype of Adams taken by Philip Haas in 1843.

by Studio of Mathew Brady (1822—96)


by Edward Dalton Marchant (1806—87)


by George Peter Alexander Healy (1813—94)

Oil on canvas; Height: 1,574.8 mm (62 in). Width: 1,193.8 mm (47 in). The White House Collection, Washington, DC.

Since the heady moment when he married Martha Custis in 1759, combining their estates into one of the preeminent holdings in northern Virginia, everything Washington touched had turned to brass. He had failed repeatedly to grow profitable tobacco crops. In London his leaf had acquired an unshakable reputation for mediocrity. Meanwhile the expenses of maintaining a great planter’s lifestyle, while keeping up a slave labor force and several plantations, had proved unrelenting. His own debtors — former comrades-in-arms who unhesitatingly touched him for loans, neighbors with whom he ran accounts, tenants who owed him rent — were slow to pay, and sometimes never did; yet he was too tightly bound by the expectations of gentlemanly behavior to refuse a loan when asked, or to press a debtor insistently when payment fell due. By 1763 Washington found himself deep in debt, doubting that he would ever extricate himself by growing tobacco, and casting about to find some way out of his predicament.

Fred Anderson
Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754 - 1766 (2000)