Portraits of Enslaved People

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Slaves of George Washington

Slaves of Thomas Jefferson

  • Christopher Sheels - Slave of Washington
  • Betty Hemings
  • Beverly Hemings
  • Harriet Hemings
  • Eston Hemings
  • Wormley Hughes - Jefferson’s gardener
  • Recollections of Madison Hemings
  • Recollections of Israel Jefferson
  • Charles Willson Peale, despite his devotion to the taxonomic and contemplative majesty of the natural world, nevertheless loved novelties and used all sorts of amusements to attract customers to his museum. He eventually resorted to hiring a popular musical performer who played five different instruments simultaneously, using all parts of his body. Following Peale’s death the museum passed into the enterprising hands of P. T. Barnum, becoming part of his traveling circus — a romantic ending for an Enlightenment institution.

    Gordon S. Wood
    Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)