Benjamin Franklin

Portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1785

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POOR RICHARD'S ALMANACK

A Man without ceremony has need of great merit in its place.

— Benjamin Franklin,1745

 

QUICK FACTS
BORN:
17 January 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts
  DIED:
17 April 1790 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Buried at Christ Church Burial Ground.

  • Though associated with Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin was born and raised in Boston. He did not arrive in Philadelphia until he was 17 (6-Oct-1723).
  • In addition, Franklin also spent some 28 years abroad, in England and France, at various times through his life.
  • Deborah Read, his future wife, saw him on the first day he arrived in Philadelphia with a roll of bread under each Arm, and the eating of the other [third one]. They do not marry until 7 years later (1-Sep-1730).
  • Poor Richard’s Almanack, published each year from 1732 to 1757 made Franklin a very wealthy man. He himself estimates (in his Autobiography) that it sold annually near ten Thousand copies.
  • Besides his printing business, Franklin was also postmaster of Pennsylvania beginning in 1737. In 1753 he became one of two deputy postmasters of North America, a post he held for 20 years.
  • By retiring from the printing business in 1748 (in a lucrative arrangement with his foreman), Franklin had the leisure time to study, experiment, and invent. His subsequent work and publications on electricity made him the most famous man in the North American colonies and a celebrity in Europe.
  • Franklin was always a civic organizer — initiating street paving, lamp lighting, firefighting, book-lending, and more — and was involved in elective politics from 1751 onward. So his involvement in the American Revolution was natural, but not inevitable. But for events he may have chosen to stay in England, which is where he was from 1764 to 1775.
  • Franklin returned to Philadelphia in 1775, was elected to the Second Continental Congress, made small corrections to The Declaration of Independence, signed it, and in December 1776 was sent to France as U.S. Commissioner to plead the American cause. He stayed there throughout the war, extracting much needed money and supplies from the French, despite little American success on the battlefield.
  • John Adams later complained, The history of our Revolution will be one continued lie from one end to the other. The essence of the whole will be that Dr. Franklin’s electrical rod smote the earth and out sprang General Washington. That Franklin electrified him with his rod — and thenceforward these two conducted all the policies, negotiations, legislatures, and war. This is fancifully true. Without Washington’s leadership and Franklin’s diplomacy — together — it is impossible to imagine how the Revolutionary War would have been won.
AUTHOR OF
  • Poor Richard’s Almanack, 1732 - 58
  • Memoirs, 1771 - 90 (first published 1791 in a French translation; now called The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin)
PLACES TO VISIT
LINKS

Portrait to come. See entry in Wikipedia.

Franklin the Celebrity
Franklin the Civic Organizer
Franklin the Diplomat
Franklin the Printer
Franklin the Scientist
Franklin the Writer

By the mid 1770s, Champlain’s Quebec had grown into a huge province stretching to the Mississippi River and including modern-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. It was home to eighty thousand inhabitants, though only 2 percent of them spoke English. Despite its official status as a North American colony under British rule, Quebec never became a part of the coalition of colonies that eventually declared their independence in 1776. Language and religious differences set the Québécois well apart from their neighbors to the south, and when representatives of the lower thirteen colonies met at the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774, no delegate from Quebec answered the roll.

Thomas A. Desjardin
Through a Howling Wilderness: Benedict Arnold’s March to Quebec, 1775 (2006)