American Campaigns

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Invasion of Canada
Battle End Date Sort descending Commander for Americans | British
Battle of Fort Ticonderoga 10-May-1775 Ethan Allen | William Delaplace
Battle of Quebec 31-Dec-1775 Richard Montgomery | Guy Carleton
Battle of Valcour Island 11-Oct-1776 Benedict Arnold | Guy Carleton
Rhode Island Campaign
Battle End Date Sort descending Commander for Americans | British
Battle of Rhode Island 29-Aug-1778 John Sullivan | Robert Pigot
Yorktown Campaign
Battle End Date Sort descending Commander for Americans | British
Battle of Chesapeake Capes 05-Sep-1781 comte de Grasse | Thomas Graves
Battle of Groton Heights 06-Sep-1781 William Ledyard | Benedict Arnold
Siege of Yorktown 19-Oct-1781 George Washington | Charles Cornwallis

The most exciting scientific find of the period was Charles Willson Peale’s exhumation in 1801 near Newburgh, New York, of the bones of the mastodon, or mammoth. Peale displayed his mammoth in his celebrated museum and in 1806 painted a marvelous picture of what was perhaps the first organized exhumation in American history. Peale’s discovery electrified the country and put the word mammoth on everybody’s lips. A Philadelphia baker advertised the sale of mammoth bread. In Washington a mammoth eater ate forty-two eggs in ten minutes. And under the leadership of the Baptist preacher John Leland, the ladies of Cheshire, Massachusetts, late in 1801 sent to President Jefferson a mammoth cheese, six feet in diameter and nearly two feet thick and weighing 1,230 pounds.

Gordon S. Wood
Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)